Print ISSN: 0027-1446

Online ISSN: 2309-6217

Volume 39, Issue 2

Volume 39, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2013, Page 101-185


Medical students' attitudes to medical ethics education

Nadia H. Saied

Annals of the College of Medicine, Mosul, Volume 39, Issue 2, Pages 101-106
DOI: 10.33899/mmed.2013.81302

ABSTRACT
Objective: The aim of the study is to investigate medical students' attitudes and opinions regarding medical ethics education.
Subjects and methods: The study was conducted in the College of Medicine, University of Mosul during the academic year 2011-2012. A cross-sectional study design was adopted with a self-administered questionnaire form distributed to medical students in the 5th and 6th undergraduate grades.
Results: Of 150 respondents, the majority (82%) considered medical ethics teaching for medical students an important issue, and 69.3% agreed that medical ethics teaching would influence the attitudes and behaviors of doctors, and improve patient-doctor relationship. However, only 40% had general interest in learning more about medical ethics. Two thirds (64.8) of students were confident with their ability to recognize a significant ethical problems in clinical practice. Only 36% knew how to proceed when a patient is mentally incompetent.
Conclusion: Medical students have a low positive attitude about the medical ethics teaching, and they may not be adequately prepared to meet the challenges of clinical practice. There should be incorporation of creative and integrated ethics curriculum to start in the first medical grade, with emphasis on ethical aspect of daily medical practice.

Harmonic versus electrocautery in the dissection of gall bladder in laparoscopic cholecystectomy

Muna M. Ahmad; Samer Alsaffar; Emad Tahir; Nashwan K. Mahjob

Annals of the College of Medicine, Mosul, Volume 39, Issue 2, Pages 107-112
DOI: 10.33899/mmed.2013.81304

ABSTRACT
Objective: To demonstrate the efficiency and safety of Harmonic scalpel in comparison with electrocautery for gallbladder dissection and hemostasis in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Patients and methods: A prospective comparative, study was done at Al-Jamhori Teaching Hospital in Mosul, during the period from 1st of January 2010 to 1st of January 2012. Three hundred and twenty patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the following criteria were applied for selection: they had chronic cholecystitis, no complaint at time of operation, age between 25 to 50 years, normal body weight, with American Score of Anesthesia (ASA) of 1 or 2, no previous upper abdominal operation, no, or well controlled hypertension or diabetes, gall bladder wall thickness with less than 6 mm by preoperative ultrasonography and all the patients were operated by the authors. The patients were divided into two groups according to the instrument used for dissection of gall bladder from its bed, the first group with electrocautery and second group with harmonic scalpel. The time needed for complete dissection and hemostasis started from spreading of Calot’s triangle till removal of gall bladder totally from its bed, was recorded. Any intra operative complications: bleeding, gallbladder perforation, slipped stones, or conversion were recorded.
Results: The study included 320 patients, 172 patients belonged to the first group (electrocautery) and 148 patients belonged to second group (harmonic). For the first group, the median time was 17 minutes, the mean time was 17.7 minutes and the mode was 13 minutes, while that for second group, the median time was 14 minutes, with a mean time of 16 minutes and a mode of 14 minutes. Intra-operative bleeding was recorded in 34 (20%) for the first group and 17 (11%) for the second one. Gallbladder perforation was recorded in 26 (15%) patients and slipped stone in 12 (7%) patients in the electrocautery group and 13(9%) and 5 (3%) respectively in the harmonic group. No common bile duct injury was recorded in either group. Conversion was needed in 4 patients (1.3%), 3 (2%) patients belonged to the first group and one (06%) to the second group.
Conclusion: Harmonic scalpel is very safe and effective instrument for dissection of gall bladder and hemostasis in laparoscopic cholecystectomy and can replace electrocautery for this purpose if available at operative theater.

Keywords: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, harmonic scalpel, electrocautery.

Changes of liver enzymes and serum bilirubin after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

Salah O. Hamad; Khalaf R. Al-Luwaizi

Annals of the College of Medicine, Mosul, Volume 39, Issue 2, Pages 113-117
DOI: 10.33899/mmed.2013.81510

ABSTRACT
Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has become the standard treatment of benign gallbladder diseases. However, it has been noticed that following LC, the serum level of certain liver enzyme rises markedly in patients who had preoperatively normal liver enzyme values.
Objectives: The study is aimed to evaluate the effect of pneumoperitoneum in LC on liver enzymes and serum bilirubin in comparison with open cholecystectomy (OC).
Patients and methods: A prospective case control study involved 74 patients treated by LC, and, 30 patients treated by OC as a control group, during the period from October 2010 to October 2011 at the Department of Surgery, Surgical Unit Number One, Al-Jumhori Teaching Hospital, Mosul, Iraq. Blood samples were taken 24 hours preoperatively and 24 hours after operation for biochemical tests.
Results: There were significant increases in serum bilirubin, Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in LC group postoperatively when compared with the OC group, while there were no significant changes in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP).
Conclusion: It has been concluded that, serum bilirubin and liver enzymes elevation could be attributed to the negative effects of the pneumoperitoneum on the hepatic blood flow. Although these changes seem to be of no clinical importance, care should be taken before deciding to perform LC in patients with hepatic insufficiency.

Keywords: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, pneumoperitoneum, liver enzymes.

Electrophysiological response to local steroid injection in carpal tunnel syndrome

Muna M. Ahmad; Mahmood A. Aljumaily; Mohammed I. S. Sabaawi

Annals of the College of Medicine, Mosul, Volume 39, Issue 2, Pages 118-122
DOI: 10.33899/mmed.2013.81300

ABSTRACT
Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common entrapment neuropathy. Local steroid injections are used for its treatment, which is usually associated with improvement in different electrophysiologic parameters of the median nerve. However, evidence for its efficacy has not been established in our community.
Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the changes in electrophysiological parameters after local steroid injection for mild and moderate idiopathic CTS.
Material and methods: The study is a prospective clinical trial assessing the electrophysiological parameters following local steroid injection (Depomedrol-80 mg methylprednisolone acetate) in the treatment of mild and moderate idiopathic CTS. The study was carried out in Mosul Teaching Hospitals during a period from December 2010 to December 2011. The total number of patients was 54 (46 females and 8 males), their mean age was 36.13 ± 9.32 years. Patients with idiopathic CTS were included after clinical confirmation of diagnosis electro-physiologically at preinjection, and electro physiological evaluation repeated 1 and 6 months after local steroid injection.
Results: All electrophysiological parameters showed significant improvement (P value is < 0.05) one month after injection except sensory nerve action potential. All median nerve electrophysiological parameters in 6 months post injection showed no significant changes except, compound motor action potential, motor nerve conduction velocity, and sensory nerve action potential which showed significant deterioration (P value is < 0.05). All electrophysiological parameters showed significant deterioration (P value is < 0.05) in comparing results of one month and 6 months after injection.
Conclusion: Local steroid injection for CTS provides transient improvement in electrophysiological parameters while causes deterioration in these parameters 6 months after injection.

Keywords: Carpal tunnel syndrome, steroid injection electrophysiology.

Aetiology of secondary otalgia in Mosul Medical City

Khalid D. Hamad; Haitham A. Alnoori; Raghdan M. D. Alhamdani; Ali A. Muttalib Mohammed

Annals of the College of Medicine, Mosul, Volume 39, Issue 2, Pages 123-127
DOI: 10.33899/mmed.2013.81310

ABSTRACT
Objectives: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the aetiology of secondary (referred) otalgia.
Patients and methods: A case series study of 79 patients clinically diagnosed as secondary otalgia, collected from the Outpatient Department of ENT at Al-Jamhory Teaching Hospital, Mosul/IRAQ, and private clinics, for the period from Jan. 2010 to Sept. 2011.
Results: The average age of the patients was 33.3 years with a range of 4-80 years. The peak age incidence was in the fourth decade of life. The study included 34 male patients (43.1%) and 45 females (56.9%) with a ratio of 1:1.3. Temporomandibular joint dysfunction was found to be the main cause of secondary otalgia (37.9%). Pharyngitis (24%), dental pain (17.7%) and cervical spine pain (7.6%) came next in that order.
Conclusion: Temporomandibular joint dysfunction, pharyngitis, dental problems and cervical nerve root pain were the commonest causes of secondary otalgia. Moreover, upper aerodigestive tract malignancies should be considered in differential diagnosis.

Keywords: Secondary otalgia, referred otalgia, referred ear pain.

Ocular trauma in Mosul. Descriptive study

Amer Y. Rajab

Annals of the College of Medicine, Mosul, Volume 39, Issue 2, Pages 128-131
DOI: 10.33899/mmed.2013.81276

ABSTRACT
Objective: To determine the incidence of ocular trauma (OT) in Mosul.
Methods: Retrospective case series study of (156) patients of OT admitted to Al-Jamhori Teaching Hospital, who were referred from emergency department to ophthalmic unit during one year from 1st Jan. till 31st Dec. 2010. Data regarding age and sex of patients, and types, causes and season of injuries were noted.
Results: About 4.4% (156 out of 3307) of patients admitted to ophthalmic unit as (OT) in one year period and 4.3% of operations (101 out of 2335) done for OT in operative theater, 85.2% were males, and 89.1% were 30 years and younger. Mean age was 15.8 years ± 13.2 SD, 60.3% (94/156) were open-globe injuries and there were seasonal differences.
Conclusion: Young age males were mostly affected and open-globe injuries were the commonest types. Also there were seasonal differences.

Evaluation of tear film stability in pterygium & pingueculae

Amer Y. Rajab

Annals of the College of Medicine, Mosul, Volume 39, Issue 2, Pages 132-135
DOI: 10.33899/mmed.2013.81274

ABSTRACT
Objective: To assess the degree of tear film stability in eyes with pingueculae and ptergia in patients from Mosul.
Patients and methods: Case-control study from private clinic and Al-Jamhori Teaching Hospital during a period of one year from Feb 2009.Tear break-up time were measured in 36 eyes with pterygia, and 37 eyes with pingueculae, compared to control group of 37 eyes.
Results: The mean tear break-up time (TBUT) was 11.1±3.6 sec. in the eyes with pingueculae & 11.4±6 sec. in the eyes with pterygium compared to 15±4.5 sec in the control group. Unstable tear film (TBUT less than 10 secs.) was found in 17 (47.2%) eyes with pterygia, compared to 13 (35.1%) eyes with pingueculue and 7 (18.9%) control eyes. Unstable tear film was significantly associated with eyes with pterygia.
Conclusion: Unstable tear film is associated more with pterygia than with pingueculae, other factors as environmental and racial ones should be evaluated.

Prognostic value of C-reactive protein in neonatal sepsis

Zaid M. Yaseen; Mazin M. Fawzi; Ghaith W. Hamdoon

Annals of the College of Medicine, Mosul, Volume 39, Issue 2, Pages 136-142
DOI: 10.33899/mmed.2013.81280

ABSTRACT
Background: Infection is one of the major problems in neonates. The diagnosis of neonatal septicemia is difficult to establish based on the clinical criteria alone. Empirical treatment should not be delayed because of the high mortality. Blood cultures are considered the gold standard for diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein found in the blood, the levels of which rise in response to inflammation. During the acute phase response, levels of CRP rapidly increase within 2 hours of acute insult, reaching a peak at 48 hours.
Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of CRP. To show the benefit of doing serial measurement of CRP in neonatal sepsis in providing additional support for the observation and follow up of patient with sepsis. To show the prognostic meaningful of CRP in neonatal sepsis.
Methods: A hospital-based cross sectional study design was conducted in Mosul over one year period from the 1st of Nov. 2010 to the 30th of Oct. 2011. A total of 198 neonates aged 1-28 days who were admitted to pediatrics wards in Al-Khansaa Teaching Hospital in Mosul during the study period under provisional diagnosis of sepsis and had a positive C-reactive protein level >6 mg/l were included in the study. All patients were sent for blood culture, and the final diagnosis of sepsis depended on the result of blood culture.
Results: Male gender constituted 63.5% of patients with sepsis compared to 51% patients without sepsis. Refusal to feed and tachypnea were the most frequent complaints in both groups (sepsis and no sepsis). All patients at admission had high CRP while only 52% had culture-proven sepsis. After 72 hrs of admission, CRP was still high in approximately half of the patients after receiving treatment but only 62% of them had positive blood culture. Higher initial CRP titer constituted 40.4% of the sepsis group compared to only 23.4% of no sepsis group, the difference was significant (p=0.009). CRP levels between 6 mg/L and 12 mg/L were more frequently observed among no sepsis than in sepsis groups (14.4% and 37.2% respectively). In patients with CRP ≥40 mg/L, CRP was significantly higher in patients with blood culture positive than in patients with suspected sepsis but negative blood culture, and after 72 hours of treatment high levels of CRP still constituted 60.6% of cases with proven sepsis compared to 46% among the suspected sepsis group but with negative blood culture. Death rate was 5% and E. coli was the predominant micro-organism isolated.
Conclusion: Gram-negative micro-organisms are a predominant cause of neonatal sepsis in our community. Predictive value of CRP could be enhanced by serial rather than a single measurement. A high cut off value of CRP may be needed to diagnose neonatal sepsis.

Keywords: Neonatal sepsis, CRP, blood culture.

Assessment of spermatogenesis by fine needle aspiration of testes in patients with azoospermia

Ibrahim K. S

Annals of the College of Medicine, Mosul, Volume 39, Issue 2, Pages 143-146
DOI: 10.33899/mmed.2013.81278

ABSTRACT
Background and objectives: Recent advances of Invitro Fertilization (IVF) and Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) combined with the progress in sperm retrieval from testes have provided a hope for azoospermic patients to become fathers. The aim of this study is to describe the cytological features of the cells aspirated from testes of patients with azoospermia and to select those who have mature spermatozoa in their aspirate for assisted fertilization.
Design and setting: A descriptive study (case series) conducted in private clinic from Jan. 2007 to Sept. 2012.
Patients and methods: Under local anasthesia Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) was performed on 250 patients whose sperm count was zero in at least three consecutive semen samples.
The size of the testes was measured and recorded for each case. The cytological features of the aspirated cells were described and the patients who have mature spermatozoa were identified for assisted fertilization.
Results: Normal spermatogenesis was found in 54 patients (21.6%), complete maturation arrest at primary spermatocytes in 95 patients (38%), complete maturation arrest at secondary spermatocytes in 32 patients (12.8%), germ cell aplasia in 62 patients (24.8%), and atrophic testis in 7 patients (2.8%). The mean age of the patients was 29.8 years. Regarding the greatest dimension of the testes, there was a significant difference in the greatest dimension of atrophic testes and in testes with germ cell aplasia, from the other groups. The procedure was well tolerated by the patients and no complications were encountered.
Conclusions: The technique can differentiate obstructive from intrinsic causes of azoospermia. It is simple, quick, cost effective and free from complications.

Keywords: FNAC, testis, infertility azoospermia.

Gender effect on coronary angiographic findings in evaluation of chest pain

Majid A. Abdulmajeed; Ismail D. Saeed

Annals of the College of Medicine, Mosul, Volume 39, Issue 2, Pages 147-153
DOI: 10.33899/mmed.2013.81268

ABSTRACT
Objective: The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of gender on angiographic findings in referred patients with chest pain and to study the gender-related differences in risk factors in patients with coronary artery disease as a secondary goal.
Design: A retrospective, clinical study of 230 patients with chest pain.
Setting: Mosul Heart Center – Ibn Sina Teaching Hospital.
Patients and methods: From Sept. 1st 2011 to Jan. 31st 2012, a total of 230 (100 female, 130 male) patients with chest pain who underwent diagnostic coronary angiography in Mosul Heart Center – Ibn Sina Teaching Hospital were studied retrospectively. Both the whole female population and post-menopausal females as a separate group was compared with a whole male population depending on the presence or absence of coronary artery disease identified by coronary angiography. The main outcome of cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, smoking and family history of coronary heart disease were also studied in relation to the gender.
Results: The correlation between the whole female and male populations with positive coronary angiography: 59% (59/100) vs. 89.2% (116/130) respectively, was statistically significant (p< 0.001). The correlation between post-menopausal women and whole male population with positive coronary angiography: 67.14% (47/70) vs. 89.2% (116/130) was also statistically significant (p< 0.05).
The mean age (yr) ± SD of whole female population with positive coronary angiography was (57.48± 8.8), while it was (53.34± 9.0) for male population with positive coronary angiographic findings. The correlation was statistically significant (p<0.01). The mean age (yr) ± SD of post-menopausal females with positive results was (59:14±7.04). This was also statistically significant in comparison with main age of whole male population (p<0.01). Hypertension and family history of ischemic heart disease were more prevalent in females than in males with coronary heart disease, 30 (50.8%) and 41(69.4%) versus 44(37.9%) and 60 (51.7%) respectively, this was statistically significant (p< 0.05).
Conclusions: Females with chest pain who were referred for diagnostic coronary angiography had significantly more negative angiography test than males, and the mean age of females with positive test is significantly higher than males. Hypertension and family history of ischemic heart disease were more prevalent in females with coronary artery disease than in males.

Keywords: Coronary artery disease (CAD), coronary angiography, gender effect on coronary angiography.

Pattern of leukaemia in Basrah

Mohammed K. Dorki; Husam M. Salih; Hasson M. Hasson p; Laith A. Alrudainy; Jenan G. Hasan; Asaad AA Khalaf; Omran S. Habib

Annals of the College of Medicine, Mosul, Volume 39, Issue 2, Pages 154-159
DOI: 10.33899/mmed.2013.81277

ABSTRACT
Background: In Basrah, previous studies reported increased risk of certain cancers including leukaemia. Two important features were reported: a rise in the incidence rate of leukaemias in children and an age shift towards younger children. These studies were limited by the incompleteness of data they used.
Objectives: This paper is intended to present a profile on leukaemia in Basrah over the years 2005-2008.
Methods: The cases of leukaemia presented in this paper represent all cases diagnosed, treated and registered in Basrah during the years 2005-2008. The cases were drawn from the pool of cancer registries in various health care institutions dealing with cancer using a case series study design. All available and verifiable cases were included in the study. Relevant incidence rates were calculated by dividing the average annual number of cases by mid-period population for each category used.
Results: During the four – year study period, it was possible to identify 608 cases of leukaemia; 56.4% were among males and 43.6% were among females. More than half of the cases (52.8%) were from Basrah, 26.5% were from Thi Qar, 13.6% were from Missan, and 7.1% were from other governorates. The age-specific incidence rate in Basrah showed a bimodal distribution with higher rates at extreme ages. The crude incidence rate was 3.6 per 100000 population (3.9 per 100000 males and 3.2 per 100000 females). The age standardized incidence rate was 4.3 per 100000 males and 3.9 per 100000 females.
Conclusion: Leukaemia is a significant malignant disease in Basrah. The figures of incidence rate point towards an upward trend, but still comparable to the figures from other Gulf countries.

Keywords: Leukaemia, incidence, Basrah

Bone mineral density in beta thalassemia syndrome in Mosul city

Mashaan M. Salih; Khalid N. Al-Khero

Annals of the College of Medicine, Mosul, Volume 39, Issue 2, Pages 160-165
DOI: 10.33899/mmed.2013.81272

ABSTRACT
Objectives: To assess bone mineral density in β- thalassemia major (TM) patients and its relation with gender, age, hemoglobin (Hb), calcium, ferritin, body mass index (BMI), chelation therapy, and splenectomy.
Patients and methods: Randomised cross-sectional study of 52 patients with beta thalassemia major (TM) from Thalassemia Center in Ibn-Alatheer Teaching Hospital (32 males and 20 females) with age between 3 and 30 years scanned for bone mineral density (BMD) at lumbar spine with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan at DEXA unit in Ibn-Sena Teaching Hospital from September 2010 to December 2010. The information about chelation therapy and splenectomy were obtained from the patients with measurement of height and weight and blood samples for hemoglobin (Hb), calcium and ferritin were taken.
Results: All 52 patients had T-score in osteoporotic range (100%), however, Z-score osteoporosis was seen in 26 (50%) and osteopenia in 19 (36.5%). Bone density was normal in only 7 (13.4%). All patients had elevated ferritin levels (100%), 36 (69.2%) had low body mass index (BMI) and 32 (61.5%) had low hemoglobin (Hb) levels. Twenty six (50%) had low calcium levels and 2 (3.8%) were not using chelation therapy. Sixteen (30.7%) had delayed puberty and the rest 36 (69.2%) were in prepubertal stage. Twelve patients (23%) had splenectomy.
Conclusion: There is high incidence of low BMD in beta thalassemia (100% by T-score and 86.5% by Z-score) with significant association with age (P-value0.000), low BMI (P-value 0.038), low Hb (P-value 0.022), delayed sexual maturity (P-value 0.000), and splenectomy (P-value 0.000).

Histochemical study of alkaline phosphatase enzyme in gallbladder containing cholesterol stones

Leka H. Al-Dulaimy; Samir B. Al-Deen Al-Mukhtar; Mohammed Taib Taher; Luma I. Al-Allaf

Annals of the College of Medicine, Mosul, Volume 39, Issue 2, Pages 166-171
DOI: 10.33899/mmed.2013.81279

ABSTRACT
Objective: To study the alterations in the expression pattern of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in gallbladder mucosa in cases of cholelithiasis (cholesterol type) in order to find its role as an indicator of functional alteration in gall bladder mucosa in these cases.
Materials and methods: A prospective study was conducted over a period of 2 months started from July 1st 2010 to September 1st 2010 at the laparoscopic unit in Al-Jumhori Teaching Hospital, Mosul, Iraq, and the Laboratory of postgraduate studies at the Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, College of Medicine, University of Mosul. Analysis of the sections which were obtained from twenty-two surgically resected gallbladder specimens using laparoscope was done. Mean age was 50.5±2.1 years (range 21-77), while the male:female ratio was 1:6. Clinical details were retrieved from the records. The cholecystectomy specimens that were received were fixed in 10% formalin. The findings on gross examination were noted, and the stones recovered from the gallbladder were analyzed by chemical examination. Multiple sections were taken from each cholesterol stone-containing gallbladder (body, neck, and fundus) for paraffin blocks and were examined after staining with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Microscopic examination was done to assess the type of histological changes. To evaluate the enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase, sections were stained using alkaline phosphatase stain (Gomori's method- Cobalt).
Results: Light microscopic examination using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) revealed that 13 (59.09%) out of 22 cases were diagnosed as cholerterosis, while sections obtained from 3 (13.6%) out of 22 cases showed inflammation. Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses were noticed in 6 (27.27%) out of 22 cases. Using alkaline phosphatase stain (Gomori's method- Cobalt), the amount of alkaline phosphatase activity varied considerably among the different areas in the same sections, and often among different areas of the same layer of gallbladder, thus making the assessment difficult. However, this study showed 14 (63.63 %) out of 22 cases with moderate reaction to ALP stain in the mucosa, while 8 (36.36%) cases showed weak to negative reaction to that stain.
Conclusion: The changes in ALP localization patterns may represent functional alterations either preceding or running concurrently with morphological damages in gallbladder with cholesterol stones. Futural studies will be recommended to localize ALP with different gallbladder disorders especially on ultrastructural, immunohistochemical, and biomolecular levels.

Keywords: Gallstones, histochemistry, alkaline phosphatase.

Evaluation of tumor biomarkers and cytokines in the detection and follow up of colorectal cancer

Zainalabideen A. Abdulla; Nada A. Hasso

Annals of the College of Medicine, Mosul, Volume 39, Issue 2, Pages 172-177
DOI: 10.33899/mmed.2013.81303

ABSTRACT
Objectives: To use a panel of seven tumor markers for the detection and follow up of colorectal cancer. To compare the diagnostic utility of the tumor markers with that of the standard methods. To construct ROC curve for the purpose of the best detection of the studied cancer.
Patients and methods: Fifty two colorectal cancer patients and 30 apparently healthy individuals as a control group were studied. They were tested for: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer antigen 19-9, cancer antigen 72-4 and tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA), two cytokines [interleukin-6 (IL-6)] and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)] by using ELISA. Twenty colorectal cancer patients were followed up for a period of 3-5 months after surgical resection.
Results: There was a significant difference (p<0.001) in the diagnostic utility between cancer and control group for all the seven tumor markers. In colorectal cancer group, a significant difference (p<0.001) in the serum concentration of CEA, TPA, IL-6, VEGF and CRP was detected according to the stage of cancer. No significant difference was shown for CA 19-9 and CA 72-4. Using ROC curve analysis, CEA was the best diagnostic test. In the follow up group, a significant reduction was found for all the seven investigated parameters.
Conclusion: CEA, CA 19-9, CA 72-4, TPA, IL-6, VEGF and CRP are of considerable diagnostic, prognostic and follow up utility. ROC curve is used to enhance the diagnostic accuracy of the studied tumor markers.

Keywords: Colorectal cancer, tumor biomarker, interleukin-6, vascular endothelial growth factor.

Endoscopic findings of colorectum in patients presenting with bleeding per rectum

Makkie A. K. Alyouzbaki

Annals of the College of Medicine, Mosul, Volume 39, Issue 2, Pages 178-181
DOI: 10.33899/mmed.2013.81301

ABSTRACT
Objectives: To determine the causes of bleeding per rectum in patients undergoing flexible colorectal endoscopy, taking in consideration the frequency of serious causes in our locality, and to compare the results with others.
Patients and methods: A retrospective descriptive study done at Al-Salam Teaching Hospital, endoscopy unit, Mosul, Iraq. One hundred and eighty five patients underwent flexible colorectal endoscopy between January 2008 and December 2011 complaining of bleeding per rectum, biopsies were taken from lesions and sent for histopathology then the findings were tabulated and recorded.
Results: One hundred and eighty five patients, with mean age of 44 years, and a male:female ratio of 2.36:1. One hundred and twenty patients (64.86%) had hemorrhoids, 10 patients (5.4%) had hemorrhoids and fissure in ano, 20 patients (10.8%) had carcinoma, 14 patients (7.5%) with inflammatory bowel disease, 9 patients (4.8%) with non-specific proctitis and colitis, 9 patients (4.8%) had polyps, 2 patients (1.1%) with solitary rectal ulcer, and 1 patient (0.5%) had benign tumor.
Conclusion: An appreciable number of serious lesions was found in patients with rectal bleeding especially in those above 40 years of age.

Keywords: Rectal bleeding, sigmoid-colonoscopy.

The roles of radiology and ESR in the diagnosis of tuberculosis in young military males in Iraq

Hussein M. Jumaah

Annals of the College of Medicine, Mosul, Volume 39, Issue 2, Pages 182-185
DOI: 10.33899/mmed.2013.81270

ABSTRACT
Objective: To describe the radiological findings of active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and /or tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) in adult males, to determine the site and extent of lesions and test the significance of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in these patients.
Patients and methods: A retrospective observational study of two hundred and sixty two military male patients with PTB and /or TPE with their age ranging from 25 to 40 years. Data were collected from the medical records at the Mosul General Hospital (which was a military hospital prior to 2003), during the period from July1995 to June 2002.
Results: The radiologic lesions of PTB were most commonly seen in the upper zones, (74% P-value 0.0001). TPE was more commonly involving the right side (64%). ESR value was found to be elevated in most of the patients (84%).
Conclusion: PTB was seen mostly in the upper zones, TPE has more predilections to the right side. The ESR is still a useful test in the diagnosis of tuberculosis.