Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, College of Pharmacy, Mosul University, Mosul, Iraq


Background: The World Health Organization led a program to eliminate smallpox, which was validated 40 years ago. According to estimates, most nations have stopped vaccinating their citizens against the disease on a regular basis. Cross immunity has been affected as a result, and a sizable section of the world's population no longer possesses protection to orthopox viruses that are directly connected to one another, such monkeypox and smallpox. These data raise the possibility that emerging or re-emerging human would fill the epidemiological gap left by smallpox, along with occasional instances of human pathogens with many orthopox viral infections.
Aim of this study: This review focused on the disease caused by the monkeypox virus and its significant modes of transmission, which has recently reemerged in some nations globally, as well as how to prevent the disease from spreading.
Conclusion: The monkeypox virus can spread in a variety of methods, all of which need intimate contact with ill people or infected animals. Small mammals are occasionally able to carry the virus without showing any symptoms. Monkeys, hedgehogs, rodents, anteaters, prairie dogs, dogs, and squirrels are just a few of the many animal species that can contract the monkeypox virus. Viral transmission between humans is less frequent than with infected animals, however, close contact either exposure to respiratory droplet, mouth contact to mouth or to skin, or skin contact with mucosal skin lesions of an infected person are the methods of transmission. Good personal hygiene and vaccination is recommended to build immunity against monkeypox. Further research is needed to clarify the role of host as well as viral components in the pathogenesis of serious and lethal infection, as well as to gain a better understanding of their risks, genes, and natural histories. This will enable global healthcare strategists to develop effective protection plans.


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