Background : Methotrexate (MTX) is one of the most effective drugs in cancer chemotherapy, as well as in the treatment of non-oncologic conditions such rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. It is one of the folic acid antagonists. However, The efficacy of MTX is often limited by it’s severe side effects on the renal and liver tissue which may limit its use.
Aim of Study: The purpose of this study was to examine the histological alterations in the rat liver and renal structure after treatment with (MTX), as well as the potential protective impact of vitamin C. METHODS: An experimental study of eighteen (18) male albino rats which were randomly distributed into three groups. Each group consists of six animals. Group I was the control group. In Group II rats received a daily IM injection of MTX (5mg/kg b.w.) for seven days. Group III: For seven days, the animals were given MTX at the same doses, periods and modes of administration as before with concomitant vitamin C in a dose of (100 mg/day) was given. The mice were euthanized after blood samples were taken from the retroorbital venous plexus for biochemical tests of liver enzymes and renal function. Light microscopic examinations were performed on liver and kidney specimens.
Results: The current study found that (MTX) therapy caused significant damage to the rat liver and kidney, as seen by elevated liver enzyme levels and altered renal function tests. The central and portal veins were severely dilated and congested in sections of the liver, with patches of fatty degeneration readily visible. The kidney segment revealed glomerular atrophy, tubular dilatation, and degeneration. Rats given vitamin C concomitantqqq2ly with MTX, on the other hand, showed minor histological alterations.
Conclusion: Vitamin C appeared to have some protection against MTX poisoning by reducing earlier degenerative alterations.