Background: Vitamin D and zinc deficiency have been the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide. There is conflicting evidence about the potential link between serum vitamin D levels and serum zinc and semen quality. The aim of this study is to examine how serum zinc and serum vitamin D affect the fertility of males by evaluating the quality of their semen.
Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out for 18 months from May 2021 to December 2022 on 103 men who were referred to an infertility clinic center at Kalar, As-Sulaymaniyyah city for their wife's fertility problems. They divided into two different groups of normal sperm parameters and abnormal sperm parameters (55 normal) and (48 abnormal).
Results: The mean values of the semen volume, total sperm concentration, total sperm motility percentage, and normal morphology percentage as well as serum vitamin D and serum zinc were signiﬁcantly higher in the group with “normal sperm parameter” (55) as compared to subjects (48) “abnormal sperm parameters” group. The serum vitamin D and serum zinc levels were signiﬁcantly high in men with “normal sperm parameters”; 35.21±10.18 (ng/dL), and, 76.46±12.02 (ng/dL), respectively. Compared with "abnormal sperm parameters" 17.64±10.01 (ng/dL) and 54.14±15.64 (ng/dL) (mean ± SD) with p-value < 0.0001.
Conclusion: A significant decrease in serum vitamin D and serum zinc concentrations has a negative association on semen quality, leading to decrease sperm parameters as well as fertilization rate.