Objective: The current research aims to assess the acute behavioral toxicity and brain histological changes of ceftriaxone in chicks as a biological model.
Methods: The acute IM median lethal dose (LD50) by Dexon method was obtained during the first day. The scoring of toxicity was estimated in the open-field activity and body-weight was measured. The acute toxic effects of ceftriaxone on brain tissue were recorded.
Results: The IM ceftriaxone LD50 value in chicks was 2131mg/kg. Intramuscular administration of ceftriaxone at doses of 0.532, 1.065 and 1.598 mg/kg caused signs of toxicity such asdropping of wings, eyelids closure, decreased movements and gasping. Ceftriaxone caused a statistically significant decrement in the body weight, decreased activity in the open field experiment represented by delay in movement, and decrease in the crossing lines. The brain showed histopathological changes such as congestion, bleeding and inflammatory cell infiltration. The lesion was more severe when exposed to high concentrations especially during the first 24 hours.
Conclusion: The results of the current study demonstrated that ceftriaxone caused behavioral toxic effects in addition to histological changes in the brain especially with acute administration.