Print ISSN: 0027-1446

Online ISSN: 2309-6217

Main Subjects : Histopathology

The Significance of CD3 Marker in the Diagnosis of Celiac Disease

Saja Hashim Hammo; Professor Wahda Mohammad Taib Al-Nuaimy; Mohammed A. Hayawi

Annals of the College of Medicine, Mosul, 2020, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 99-108
DOI: 10.33899/mmed.2020.128710.1055

Background: Celiac disease is a common, permanent and reversible health problem of small intestine occurring all over the world in genetically predisposed individuals and in combination with other environmental factors. It causes chronic inflammation of small intestine which is of autoimmune origin. The histopathological features of Celiac disease in duodenal biopsy was stated according to the modified Marsh classification.
The immunohistochemical application of CD3 marker in duodenal biopsy could facilitate the count and the distribution of intraepithelial lymphocytes along the villi, which is regarded as a key for the correct diagnosis in early stages ( Marsh 1).
Objectives: This study was conveyed to correlate the significance of CD3 immunohistochemical expression of intraepithelial lymphocytic population to histopathological changes in Celiac disease, to identify the distribution of CD3 marker along the villi (crescendo or decrescendo) and (diffuse or patchy ) and to delineate the age and sex of Celiac disease in our locality.
Materials and methods: The research was both prospective and retrospective case series study, carried out on 100 cases of endoscopically obtained duodenal biopsies. Data obtained from archives of the pathology department, at AL-Jamhory, AL-Khansaa and AL-Salam Teaching Hospitals/ Mosul city, and collected in a period spanning from January 2019 to May 2020. The information included age, sex and duodenal biopsy location. then assessed histologically and immunohistochemically.
Results: In a total of 100 duodenal samples, patients age was ranged 1 to 69 years ( mean age of 20.74 years), with a female to male ratio ( 2.2:1).
By applying modified Marsh classification: Marsh 0 was detected in 8 % of the cases, Marsh 1 in 30 % , Marsh 2 in 10% , Marsh 3 a in 20%, Marsh 3 b in 17%, Marsh 3 c in 15% and Marsh 4 in 0%. Immunohistochemical expression of CD3 in the sampled cases i.e. CD3 + ≥30 /100 epithelial cells was detected in 79 %. There was a statistically significant difference between CD3+ and modified Marsh classification by Hematoxylin & Eosin (P Value<0.001) for detection of intraepithelial lymphocytosis.
Conclusion: There is a significant relationship between the count of CD3+ T-lymphocytes per 100 epithelial cells and the histopathological changes in the duodenal biopsy according to modified Marsh classification. the immunohistochemical expression of CD3 in intraepithelial T-lymphocyte could lead to a definite assessment in 13 % of the sampled cases with Marsh type 1. All the positive cases are of crescendo pattern of distribution of CD3+ T-lymphocytes as the distribution is more important than the actual count and they distributed diffusely except that associated with Helicobacter pylori infection observed with patchy distribution. The IHC expression of CD3+ marker provides a hint about the distribution of CD3+ marker within the lymphocyte whether global surface or clonal surface and intracytoplasmic to diagnose Refractory Celiac disease. Females were more affected than males and there is a significant relationship between the gender and the histopathological changes. It can be diagnosed at any age and there is no significant relationship between the age distribution and the histopathological changes.

Diagnostic Yield of PAX5 in Lymphoma

Hiba Rafea; Abdul Kareem Yonis Al-Tae; Nazar Mohamed Jawhar

Annals of the College of Medicine, Mosul, 2020, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 109-118
DOI: 10.33899/mmed.2020.128737.1058

Background: Lymphoma is a heterogeneous group of neoplasm affecting any stage of lymphocyte development. Nowadays, WHO (2017) adapted their classification depending on their morphological, immunohistochemical appearance, and their clinical and molecular characteristics.

Objective: To determine the expression of PAX5 in Hodgkin and Non Hodgkin lymphoma and their association with clinical parameters (age &site).

Patients & Methods: During a period of 1 year starting from June 2019 to June 2020, 60 lymphoma patients" were included in this"prospective-retrospective"case series study from"medical records and histopathological results in governmental and private labs. Immunohistochemistry examination using PAX5 was performed, and data of the positive PAX5 expression were analyzed.

Results: A total of 60 patients were recruited in this study with the majority (58%) were Non Hodgkin lymphoma, dominated by diffuse large B- cell lymphoma subtype (42.8%) and (42%) were Hodgkin lymphoma where nodular sclerosis subtype formed (52%) and mainly of the nodal site in both of them. The age range of Non Hodgkin lymphoma 7-76 years (median 50 years) and 5-67 years (median 21 years) for Hodgkin lymphoma and male predominance in both of them and there is no significant association between the site and lymphoma (p value=0.0647) while a significant association with age (p value =0.037). Moreover, the immunohistochemical examination demonstrates that positive PAX5 was expressed in 77% of Non Hodgkin lymphoma and 100% of Hodgkin lymphoma. The P-value between them was 0.016, which was statistically significant ,no matter of using PAX5 or CD30 in"the diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma,in other hand"there is a significant difference between PAX5 and CD3 expression (P value=0.004), while it is not statistically significant when comparing PAX5 and CD20 (P-value =0.317) in the diagnosis of Non Hodgkin lymphoma .

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that PAX5 is one of the most sensitive and reliable immunohistochemical marker in diagnosing Hodgkin lymphoma and B-cell Non Hodgkin lymphoma.

Ki-67 Expression in Breast Cancer, Its Correlation with ER, PR and Other Prognostic Factors in Nineveh Province

Hatem Abd-AlMajeed Al-Nuaimi; Elaf Hamdi; Banan Burhan Mohammed

Annals of the College of Medicine, Mosul, 2020, Volume 42, Issue 1, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/mmed.2020.127375.1037

Objectives: The aggressiveness of malignant tumors of breast can be correlated with the proliferation of neoplastic cells, and this detected by immunohistochemical study of proliferative index (Ki-67). American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) does not recommend the use of Ki-67 routinely to predict the outcome of breast cancers, therefore the aim of current study is to detect the expression of Ki-67 in patients with primary breast cancer in Nineveh Province/North of Iraq and to correlate it with estrogen and progesterone receptors in addition to other prognostic factors.
Methods: In this retrospective-case series study eighty cases of histologically proven primary breast carcinomas were included. The cases were collected from hospitals and private laboratories in Nineveh Province / North of Iraq and studied Immunohistochemicaly for Ki-67, estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) were done on tissue sections embedded in paraffin wax. An area with the maximum proliferation was chosen to evaluate Ki-67 and the cases with ≥20% positive nuclei were considered as high Ki-67 expression while those with <20% positive nuclei were considered as low Ki-67 expression.(10-14).
The findings of Ki-67 were correlated with the age of the patients, histological type, grade of the tumors and with the estrogen and progesterone receptors.
Results: The Ki-67 immunoreactivity was highly expressed in (45%) of the cases. Estrogen and progesterone receptors observed in (77.5%) and (67.5%) of the cases respectively. The Ki-67 was significantly associated with grade of tumor, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor (P= 0.0057, 0.037 and 0.006 respectively). While the association with patientsˈage and histological types were not statistically significant.
Conclusion: Ki-67 expression shows a significant direct correlation with grade of tumors and a significant inverse correlation has been shown with a well-known predictive factors, (estrogen and progesterone receptors).

Endoscopical and Histopathological Interpretation of Gastritis in Nineveh Province

Wahda Al-Nuaimy; Huda M Faisal

Annals of the College of Medicine, Mosul, 2019, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 28-35
DOI: 10.33899/mmed.2018.161275

Objectives: To assess the diagnostic value of endoscopical findings compared to histopathological diagnosis, to delineate the relative frequency and pattern of different types of gastritis and their association with H. pylori and intestinal metaplasia in our locality, and to compare the results of this study with those of others.
Methods: In a cross sectional study 150 selected patients with different upper gastrointestinal symptoms have been examined at endoscopy units in Ibn-Sina teaching hospital and Al-Jamhori teaching hospital in Mosul city, from the first of June 2013 to the first of March 2014, all were assessed endoscopically and biopsies from both antral and body mucosa were taken for histopathological examination.
Results: This study has revealed gastritis histopathologically in 96.6% of cases, and the agreement between endoscopical and histophathological diagnosis was 88%. The chronic superficial gastritis represented the highest relative frequency  in this histopathologically diagnosed gastritis, where it was seen in 61.3% of the cases and it’s relative frequency decreased with advance age, while chronic atrophic gastritis was diagnosed in 30% of the cases and it’s relative frequency increased with advanced age, while gastric atrophy wasn’t detected in any case. Acute gastritis was detected in only 5.3% of the cases.
   Helicobacter pylori was detected in 67% of cases. A significant association was detected between chronic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection, and its frequency decreased with increased severity of glandular atrophy. Follicular gastritis was diagnosed in 51% of chronic atrophic gastritis and 91.3% of them were Helicobacter pylori positive cases. By the use of the special stain AB/PAS pH (2.5), intestinal metaplasia has been diagnosed in 23% of cases and it’s relative frequency increased with advanced age.
Conclusion: There is a high rate of concordance (88%) between endoscopical findings and histopathological diagnosis of gastritis. Among gastritis chronic variety was the commonest. H. pylori had a significant association with chronic gastritis (chronic superficial gastritis and chronic atrophic gastritis). Intestinal metaplasia has been detected mainly in chronic atrophic gastritis and its frequency increased with advanced age.