Print ISSN: 0027-1446

Online ISSN: 2309-6217

Main Subjects : Biochemistry

Peroxisome Proliferator- Activated Receptors (PPARs): A Review on Effects on Glucose Metabolism, Energy Homeostasis and Cardiovascular System

Amjad Hazim Al-Naemi

Annals of the College of Medicine, Mosul, 2022, Volume 44, Issue 1, Pages 95-102
DOI: 10.33899/mmed.2022.133951.1148

Background:Molecular biology and human medical genetics have introduced several novel biomarkers giving control over vital body functions, of these are transcriptional factors known as peroxisome proliferator activated- receptors “PPARs”. The aim of this review is to shed light on available online information and published research works about these biomarkers. The current review will try to display those findings mainly related to energy homeostasis, glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and some cardiovascular interactions.
Methods:a literature review about peroxisome proliferator activated- receptors and their roles in controlling some vital body functions has been made and recorded. Search covered published investigations and research works over the last three decades as accessible.
Results: peroxisome proliferator activated- receptors have crucial roles in controlling a big deal of vital biological processes in humans.
Conclusions: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are important transcriptional factors with clinical impacts. Literature shows a wide spectrum of effects and interactions through affecting many genes involved in processes of glucose homeostasis, energy balance, and peripheral insulin sensitization in addition to interfering with processes of inflammation, angiogenesis, blood pressure control and atherosclerosis. 

Propolis: biochemical and clinical evaluation

Maryam Hani Abduljalal; OMAR MOHAMMED Yaya; Maher Abdul satar Ibrahim; Imad A Thanoon

Annals of the College of Medicine, Mosul, 2021, Volume 43, Issue 2, Pages 216-219
DOI: 10.33899/mmed.2021.132433.1126

Propolis is a glue-like substance which produced by honey bees, it is related to honey. It is also called bee glue as they use it to reconstruct their hives and for the hives maintenance. They make propolis by mixing many substances like bee wax, saliva, exudate collected  from trees, sap flows and other sources.
Many studies have made concerning importance of propolis and it is wide medical benefits as it is role in improving immunity, reducing elevated blood pressure, curing many allergic conditions and dermatological diseases.
The aim of this review is to enumerate some of its chemical constitutions and it is role in treating some medical conditions.

The Biochemical Changes in Bone Profile during Pregnancy

Awatif S. Hamdoon; Ehsan Hassan Aldabbagh; Akram J. Ahmad

Annals of the College of Medicine, Mosul, 2021, Volume 43, Issue 2, Pages 191-197
DOI: 10.33899/mmed.2021.130053.1091

Background: Metabolic processes directly affect the bone skeleton in the human body; especially during pregnancy in females. A bone profile obtained from a blood test can reveal the changes on it.
Objectives: The present study aims to estimate the changes that occur in some bone components during pregnancy and whether these changes are physiological or pathological.
Patients and methods: Blood samples were collected from 126 females who attend to Al-Hadbaa primary health care center and Al-Khansaa Hospital  in Mosul city during the period from January to April 2008. These females classified into two main groups; Group-1 consists of 87 normal pregnant females which are subdivided to 3 subgroups according to their gestational age. Group-2 consists of 39 non-pregnant healthy females (control group). The biochemical parameters measured were: serum calcium, serum albumin, serum inorganic phosphorus (iP), serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and corrected serum calcium, and the measured data for these parameters were analyzed using different statistical methods.
Results: The total serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus and serum albumin decreased in pregnant female compared to the control group, while alkaline phosphatase activity was elevated in pregnant females compared to the non-pregnant females.
Conclusion: The increasing in ALP during pregnancy is accompanied by decreasing serum calcium in the 2nd trimester and decreasing in iP in the 3rd trimester that could be a pathological changes related to the bone.

Obesity, adipose tissue types and adipocytokines

Nuha Shareef; Maryam Hani Abduljalal

Annals of the College of Medicine, Mosul, 2020, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 177-183
DOI: 10.33899/mmed.2020.128256.1045

The prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide in the last 50 years, reaching pandemic levels. The etiology of obesity is multifactorial, involving a complex of interaction among genetics, hormones and the environment. The adipose tissue plays a central role in regulating whole body energy. In one hand, the adipose tissue stores energy in the form of lipid and controls the lipid mobilization and distribution in the body, and on the other hand, adipose tissue acts as an endocrine organ and produces numerous bioactive factors such as adipocytokines. Moreover, brown and beige adipose tissue burn lipid by dissipating energy in the form of heat to maintain euthermia and have been considered as a new way to counteract obesity. In this review, we will summarize the recent findings of the types of adipose tissue and their role in controlling metabolism, focusing on its endocrine function. This review describes the molecular actions and clinical significance of the some important adipocytokines.

The assessment of glycemic control and renal function in ischemic heart patients

Ehsan Hassan Aldabbagh; Akram Ahmad

Annals of the College of Medicine, Mosul, 2020, Volume 42, Issue 1, Pages 27-34
DOI: 10.33899/mmed.2020.127368.1036

Background: Ischemic heart diseases are considered as the leading cause of death throughout the world and a major cause of hospital admissions. Diabetes mellitus together with hypertension are among the modifiable risk factors.
Aims of the study: To assess the glycemic control and renal function tests of patients with ischemic heart diseases.
Methods: Fasting blood samples were obtained from seventy one cases of ischemic heart disease who were admitted to cardiac care unit, mean age 60.9 years old, sera were used to measure urea, creatinine and glucose by enzymatic colorimetric method while blood with anticoagulant used for glycated hemoglobin measurement by ion exchange resin quantitative colorimetric determination and urine samples were obtained for analysis of protein/creatinine ratio by turbidimetric method. Measurement of micro albumin in urine is based on immunoassay with flouresence detection.Statistics included t-test and linear regression.