Print ISSN: 0027-1446

Online ISSN: 2309-6217

Main Subjects : Pharmacology

Impact of Sacubitril and RAAS inhibitors on p53 expression in rat-induced heart failure. A new approach for ischemic heart disease therapy

Kawa Dizaye; Rojgar Ali; Rafal Al-Rawi

Annals of the College of Medicine, Mosul, 2020, Volume 42, Issue 1, Pages 11-18
DOI: 10.33899/mmed.2020.126595.1021

Background: p53 is a well-known protein that prevents cancer formation, which is recognized as the main protein in the adaptation to many harmful stimuli, like oxidative stress. Among actions of p53, studies have shown that it has an important role in the development of heart failure (HF), and arteriosclerosis. Several clinical studies were done to investigate the role of p53 in the progression of HF and with the intention to improve management of heart failure.
Objective: The purpose of this work was to investigate the mechanisms of myocardial injury that precipitates heart failure that is mediated by both β-adrenergic signaling and p53, then compare the results with administered sacubitril and angiotensin system blockers.
Thirty female albino rats were allocated into five groups; group I: served as a control group; group II: were injected with isoproterenol for HF induction; and groups III, IV, and V (HF treated groups ) whereas rats received sacubitril alone, combination of sacubitril with ramipril and combination of sacubitril with aliskiren respectively, orally on daily basis.
Results revealed that rats of group II (HF induced) were significantly (P = 0.002) showed more myocardial injury and higher nuclear p53 expression compared to rats of the control group. Furthermore, rats of group III, IV, V (HF treated groups) showed significantly (P = 0.037) less myocardial injury and significantly (P = 0.015) less nuclear p53 expression compared to rats of the group II.
It was concluded that rats received either sacubitril alone or with combination of ramipril or aliskiren for HF treatment were alleviated myocardial injury and lower nuclear p53 expression.
It was concluded that anti-p53 approach may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for human ischemic heart diseases and myocardial infarction.

Review study of the role of genetically modified Lactococcus lactis in prevention of type-1 diabetes mellitus

Abeer Mudhafar Al-Humaidhi; Ahmed Abdulkareem Shegaya; Ali Qusay Sagban; Hussain Ali Jaleel; Karrar Mahtar Ateha; Maitham Jaber Abdulhussain

Annals of the College of Medicine, Mosul, 2020, Volume 42, Issue 1, Pages 82-89
DOI: 10.33899/mmed.2020.127468.1040

Globally, type 1 diabetes mellitus is a common chronic autoimmune disease impacts a great number of individuals. It results from devastation of insulin-secreting beta cells of the pancreas described by incompetence to secrete insulin resulting in hyperglycemia that need a ceaseless treatment with insulin. Further, complications of type 1 diabetes can influence numerous organs and may prompt premature death. Therefore, the requirement to find new strategies for managing type 1 diabetes other than exogenous insulin administration got obligatory. Curiously, genetically modified Lactococcus lactis can incite immunological tolerance; downregulate mechanisms linked to adaptive immunity; and reduce disease-related inflammation, while leaving the remainder of the immune system flawless. This review aimed to overview genetically modified Lactococcus lactis, it's expressing proteins, pathogenesis of type 1diabetes, and therapeutic effects of genetically modified Lactococcus lactis in animal model of type 1daibetes, further, to display the possible mechanisms through which the genetically modified Lactococcus lactis can act. It has been presumed that targeting antigen-specific pathway utilizing genetically modified Lactococcus lactis has potential therapeutic impacts in experimental animals with type 1 diabetes mellitus. This could open up new and safe therapeutic prospects in autoimmune disease domain such as type 1diabetes mellitus.

Descriptive Study of Colorectal Cancer in Iraq, 1999-2016

Taha HT Al-Saigh; Shahbaa A Al-Bayati; Shatha A Abdulmawjood; Faris A Ahmed

Annals of the College of Medicine, Mosul, 2019, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 81-85
DOI: 10.33899/mmed.2019.161330

Background: Colorectal cancer has increased in the last decades, which constitutes about 10% of cancer mortality. It becomes the second and third most common cancer in women and men respectively.
Objective: To explore the factors for colorectal cancer in Iraq including age, gender, family history, diabetes, smoking, serum carcinembryonic antigen (CEA) as a predictor factor, stages of cancer, bowl habit, and symptoms.
Patients and methods: This study was conducted in surgical unit at Alkathymia Teaching Hospital, Baghdad and in Al-Jammhory Teaching Hospital, Mosul, during the period from Feb-1999 to June-2016. This is a case series study for 956 patients with colorectal cancer. The data gathered included: age, gender, family history, diabetes and smoking, serum CEA, stages of the disease, bowl habit and symptoms. Data are presented as mean and percentage, and were analyzed by using Chi square goodness of fit test.  p values ≤ 0.05 were considered significant.
Results: Colorectal cancer patients with ages between 25-50 years were significantly (p≤0.01) higher than the patients with > 50 years or 5 ng/mL presented the high percentage (83.6%) and they were highly significant (p ≤ 0.001) than patients with serum CEA less than 5. Stage 2 (48.2%) was significantly (p≤0.01) higher than stage 1 (16.6%), 3 (20.6%) and 4 (14.5%), respectively. For bowl habit, constipation presented 75.8% was significantly higher than diarrhea (14.5%). In addition, symptoms of bleeding per rectum (71.1%) were significantly higher than symptoms of pain (28.2%).
Conclusion: Colorectal cancer is significant disease in Iraq. Middle age patients presented the highest percentage. Education of patients about bowl habit and symptoms of colorectal cancer should be applied especially constipation and bleeding per rectum.

Comparative Effect of Valsartan and Amlodipine on Insulin Resistance in Hypertensive Patients

Musab M. Khalaf

Annals of the College of Medicine, Mosul, 2019, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 52-56
DOI: 10.33899/mmed.2019.161279

Objectives: To study the effect of commonly used first line antihypertensive drugs valsartan and amlodipine on insulin resistance parameters in hypertensive patients free from type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Patients and methods: In a prospective, randomized study, 32 non-diabetic patients with mild to moderate hypertension attending private clinics in Mosul city were recruited. The patients were randomized into two treatment groups to receive either  amlodipine in the dose range of 5-10 mg daily or valsartan in the dose range of 80-160 mg daily. At baseline and 8 weeks of treatment fasting serum glucose (FSG), fasting serum insulin (FSI), homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures levels were determined.
Results: Intragroup comparison showed that after 8 week treatment with amlodipine and valsartan, SBP, DBP, FSI and HOMA-IR for both groups were significantly decreased in comparison with baseline data while FSG where non significantly decreased. Valsartan reduce SBP, FSG, FSI and HOMA-IR more than amlodipine but this reduction was not statistically significant.
Conclusion: This study showed that the antihypertensive drugs amlodipine and valsartan have favorable effects on insulin resistance mediated by decreasing HOMA-IR in non-diabetic hypertensive patients. Also, this study illustrated that valsartan seems to have a more potent effect of lowering HOMA-IR than amlodipine in the standard dose.